Under the environment of world economic recession, the operating conditions of many printing companies are not optimistic. In order to cope with the crisis, printing companies have strengthened information management while reducing expenditures, and demanded benefits from management. Today, most printing companies have adopted a new type of enterprise management software-ERP system to improve management efficiency. The implementation of ERP system can realize information management from customer quotation, order, pre-press, printing, post-press and other processes. In addition, relying on the ERP system, the enterprise decision-making layer can obtain accurate and effective data and information, and make a rapid market response to the demand, thereby improving the operating efficiency of the enterprise, reducing costs, and maximizing the benefits of the enterprise.
So, what is an ERP system? Problems that printing enterprises can solve by applying ERP system? What preparations should a printing enterprise implement for implementing an ERP system and what should be paid attention to in application? This article makes a superficial analysis of the above problems, and hopes to help the printing enterprise to implement the ERP system.
1 Introduction to ERP system
ERP is an American IT company in the 1990s, based on the development of computer information, IT technology, and the demand for supply chain management by enterprises at that time, and predicted the development trend and upcoming changes of enterprise management information systems in the future information age, and proposed this concept. After the extension and expansion in recent years, ERP has been adopted by more and more industries and enterprises, and has caused many enterprises to quickly improve their efficiency.
ERP is the abbreviation of English Enterprise Resourse Planning, which means "Enterprise Resource Planning" when translated from Chinese. It is an information system with management accounting at its core, identifying and planning enterprise resources. In order to obtain customer orders, complete processing and delivery, and finally get customer payment. ERP integrates all resources within the enterprise and plans procurement, production, cost, inventory, distribution, transportation, finance, and human resources to achieve the best combination of resources and obtain the best benefits.
ERP is a new generation of integrated management information system developed from MRP (Material Requirements Planning). It expands the functions of the MRP system. Its core idea is supply chain management, which optimizes enterprise resources from the scope of the supply chain. The ERP system integrates information technology and advanced management ideas, and becomes the operation mode of a modern enterprise and the cornerstone of the enterprise's survival and development in the information age. Practice shows that who can master and apply ERP in time can quickly change the backward management situation through management innovation. Reduce the gap with advanced enterprise management levels, improve business processes, and enhance the core competitiveness of enterprises.
The printing industry is one of the important industries in China's economic structure. With the rapid development of the market economy and the integration of the global economy, China's printing companies are facing an increasingly fierce competitive environment, and the original management methods have not adapted to the requirements of fierce competition. Under such circumstances, it is imperative for printing companies to introduce ERP. Enterprises can use ERP as a tool to expand the scope of business management, promote enterprise development, and create huge intangible and tangible economic benefits.
2 Problems that printing enterprises can solve by applying ERP
Printing ERP is to interlock the operating units of printing enterprises to form a system of checks and balances, which can effectively solve the quotation, order, production, follow-up, outsourcing, collar, storage, delivery The disconnection of goods, collections and other links makes the information flow of the enterprise enter a benign and orderly circular process.
Printing enterprises applying ERP can solve the following problems:
2.1 Simplify business processes and improve production efficiency
Before the printing enterprise implements the ERP system, business order, production billing, financial checkout, delivery, etc. are generally manually billed, not only easy to make mistakes, but also a lot of work. The implementation of the ERP system only requires the business department to enter it once. When this customer prints the product again, there is no need to re-enter the basic data. Because the software sets all the items according to the process in advance, omissions of business personnel and process personnel are less likely to occur, reducing the chance of errors from the program.
The printing ERP system is designed according to the industry characteristics and actual situation of the printing enterprise, which is both advanced and applicable, so as to help the enterprise management personnel to carry out timely and accurate large-scale, dynamic and intricate data and information in the enterprise Local analysis and processing, and plan, control, and post-feedback the various production and operation activities of the enterprise in order to achieve rational use of enterprise resources, reduce inventory, reduce capital occupation, enhance enterprise resilience, improve enterprise market competitiveness and economy Benefit purpose.
2.2 Realize real-time control of the production process
After the business receives the order, the production department issues the construction process sheet and the paper sheet, and sorts the current production tasks reasonably through the computer. Each workshop can check the corresponding print requirements and data on the ERP system, and strictly implement the production plan within their respective responsibilities. All workshops and departments can see the production tasks of the day in advance through ERP, do a good job of preparing personnel and materials, and promptly raise the problems in the production arrangement. Each workshop is equipped with a computer, which can record the production situation into the ERP system in real time. , Production department and business personnel can view the progress of each single business in real time.
2.3 Achieve supply chain management and achieve reasonable distribution and use of materials and funds
Printing ERP optimizes resources through advanced material demand analysis, perfect inventory management, work order material budget, and work order quota picking. So as to effectively control costs. The paper, ink and auxiliary materials needed for printing can be supplied in a timely, accurate and fixed amount. This not only guarantees business and production requirements, but also reduces inventory.
2.4 Realize fast, accurate and flexible printing quotation and valuation
Customer inquiry is the beginning of the printing business, and it is very important to quote customers quickly and accurately. At present, there are many printed quotation software on the market, but most of them are valuation software with poor accuracy. The ERP system is different, divided into valuation and quotation, that is, valuation by coefficient method and quotation by cost method. The quotation by cost method is based on the cost price plus expense profit quotation method. The valuation cost includes four parts: â‘ main direct material cost; â‘¡ pre-press, printing and post-press processing costs: â‘¢ packaging and transportation costs; â‘£ management costs, revenue and Taxes and fees, the quotation method is clear, concise and accurate.
2.5 Realize fund flow management based on accounts receivable and payable
Relying on the ERP system, you can quickly query the completion status of each order, the number of delivery, the number of returns, the amount of receipts, etc., can quickly summarize the customer's accounts receivable, aging and credit status, ensure the effective application of funds, and return funds quickly . There is a query function for the advance collection process, a list is made for the collection, the collection of accounts receivable, and the management of verification after the collection is cleared. There is a query function for the prepayment process, and the corresponding payment has a list, a summary of payables, a write-off management after the payment is settled, and a supplier statement function.
3 Preparations for printing companies to implement ERP system
3.1 Be prepared
(1) Enterprise leaders must have firm determination and confidence. The implementation of ERP will not only bring about changes in working methods and working habits, but even bring about adjustments in work processes and job responsibilities. This will inevitably cause fluctuations in the employees â€™minds and even conflict with their thoughts and behaviors. In the face of these difficulties, if the business leaders are not determined, they may be abandoned halfway.
Any new things have a process of understanding, acceptance, trial and adaptation. The introduction of ERP by printing companies cannot allow every employee to accept and adapt in a short time. To change the concept through training, the company's senior management should let employees understand that the enterprise's use of ERP is the trend and the need for development. Enterprise development is the last word. The ability to use the ERP management system is the key to enterprise development and an important means for enterprises to improve their competitiveness.
(2) Enterprise employees must be psychologically prepared. On the one hand, to realize the implementation of the ERP system, work methods, work habits, and even the responsibilities of some departments will also face a change, so be mentally prepared. On the other hand, we must be mentally prepared to increase the workload in the short term. In the early stage of ERP implementation, there will generally be a parallel period of manual management and ERP management. During this period, the manually managed documents must continue to be used and must be imported into ERP. In this way, the daily workload will increase a lot. But as long as this time passes, everything will be fine. In ERP, because the data of the following process is automatically generated by the data of the previous process, the data between various departments can be shared scientifically. ERP also has many automatic prompting and automatic control functions, and it can count real-time reports at any time. So on the whole, the application of ERP will definitely bring about a significant increase in work efficiency, and employees must have firm confidence in this.
3.2 Preparation of basic data
The printing industry is a processing industry, with large amounts of data and high difficulty in collection. Pay attention to the following three points when preparing basic data:
(1) Enterprise leaders should attach great importance to it. The basic data required for the implementation of the system involves a wide range of aspects, such as personnel information, price database information, material inventory information, paper inventory information, customer paper inventory information, output value quota information, material consumption quota information, etc. The collection and collation of these data requires the cooperation of multiple departments, and the workload is very large. Therefore, enterprise leaders should attach great importance to the implementation of the project; otherwise, it is difficult to get the strong cooperation of all departments and the active participation of all employees.
(2) Data preparation should be carried out step by step and standardized. There is a certain correlation between the data of the system, so the preparation of the data should be carried out according to the steps and the plan. Only in this way can the cycle of data preparation be guaranteed. In addition, the system data encoding must be standardized. Such as work price code, customer code, quotation code, subpoena code, supplier code, material code, etc. Standard coding rules should be used to ensure the accuracy of data statistics.
(3) Configure special personnel to be responsible for data collation. The basic data of the system is complicated, and the project implementation cycle must be guaranteed. Therefore, special personnel should be deployed to standardize and collect the basic data required for system operation to provide accurate data for ERP system initialization.
4 Matters needing attention for printing enterprises to implement ERP system
4.1 Choose the system suitable for the company
The printing industry is a highly professional industry. Of course, the general ERP system is not suitable for printing companies. Therefore, you should choose a printing ERP system designed according to the characteristics of the printing industry and advanced management concepts. However, due to the different informatization foundations, different management foundations, and different business characteristics of each printing enterprise, even the printing ERP system designed in this way is not suitable for all printing enterprise applications. Therefore, when printing companies choose ERP systems. Must fully consider their own management and actual business situation, choose the ERP system suitable for the enterprise, and then accumulate experience in operation, to improve it step by step.
Technically, ERP is divided into C / S architecture and B / S architecture. If ERP is only applied to the intranet of the enterprise, both architectures are acceptable; if ERP needs to be used on the wide area network, it is best to choose B / S architecture products.
4.2 Reasonable planning and management of ERP projects
The implementation of the ERP project is a systematic project, which involves various aspects such as software installation, hardware construction, and management reform. Therefore, the schedule and cost must be strictly controlled to achieve the project's expected goals. In addition, the implementation of ERP requires special management, special investment, and special guarantees. It is necessary to do a good job in the work place of the project implementation personnel, the equipment configuration of the main positions, the assignment of duties of the post personnel, etc., as well as formulate a perfect incentive system for project participants and do other logistics support work.
4.3 Data filling and entry must be accurate
The process of enterprise management informatization is a gradual process, requiring a large amount of data accumulation. In the process of data accumulation, the business department is at the core. Enterprises should combine the three functions of data statistics, financial accounting, and computer management, which are managed by different departments, to be unifiedly managed by the business department to ensure the consistency and accuracy of internal and external data.
Enterprise management informatization is a process in which all employees participate. Much of ERP's data comes from reports and documents filled out by employees. The production daily report that the production staff fills out daily is a particularly important link, and the specification and correctness of the production daily report are critical.
Asking for benefits from management and implementing an ERP system is indeed a good choice. At present, the direct and indirect benefits brought by the successful implementation of ERP by many printing companies in China are obvious to all.
Of course, any management theory and technology has its two sides or limitations, and ERP systems are naturally no exception. That is to say, the ERP system is like a double-edged sword. If used properly, it can significantly improve the efficiency of the enterprise; on the contrary, it may also damage the interests of the enterprise itself. Therefore, whether a printing enterprise implements an ERP system depends on the actual situation of the enterprise. If it does not have the management basis and conditions for implementing an ERP system, it cannot be forcibly implemented. Otherwise it will be counterproductive.
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